Knowledge Hub


Water Circuits

What are Water Circuits in Toolmaking?

Water circuits in the toolmaking process refer to the cooling system used to regulate the temperature of the moulds or tooling during the manufacturing process.

When producing plastic parts or components using moulds, the molten plastic is injected into the mould cavity, generating heat as it solidifies. If the heat is not dissipated effectively, it can lead to various issues such as warping, uneven cooling, and longer cycle times, which can ultimately affect the quality and productivity of the production.

Water Circuit Features on Tool

To prevent these problems, water circuits are implemented as a cooling system. These circuits consist of a network of channels or passages within the mould or tooling, usually made of copper or some other thermally conductive material. Water, or sometimes a coolant, is circulated through these circuits to remove the excess heat.

The water or coolant is typically supplied from an external source such as a chiller or cooling tower. It is then pumped into the mould, where it flows through the channels, and exits the mould, carrying away the heat generated by the molten plastic. The warmed water or coolant is then cooled back down and recirculated to maintain the desired temperature in the mould.

The design of the water circuits is based on the specific requirements of the tooling and the production process. The number, size, and layout of the channels within the mould are determined to ensure effective and uniform cooling. Additionally, flow rates, temperature differentials, and other parameters are carefully controlled to optimise the cooling process.

By using water circuits, manufacturers can achieve faster cycle times, more precise part dimensions, improved surface finish, and reduced chances of defects in the final product.

How are Water Circuits Manufactured in the Toolmaking Process?

Manufacturing water circuits in the toolmaking process involves several steps:

  1. Design: First, the water circuit is designed based on the specific requirements of the tool or product. This includes determining the shape, size, and layout of the water channels.
  1. Material selection: The material for the water circuit is selected based on factors such as heat resistance, corrosion resistance, and compatibility with the tooling material. Common materials include stainless steel and plastic.
  1. Machining: The water circuit is then machined using various manufacturing processes such as milling, drilling, turning, or laser cutting. These processes remove excess material and create the desired shape of the water channels.
  1. Welding or brazing: Depending on the material used, the individual components of the water circuit may need to be joined together using welding or brazing techniques. This ensures that the water channels are sealed and leak-proof.
  1. Finishing: After the water circuit is assembled, any rough edges or imperfections are smoothed out through processes such as grinding or polishing. This improves the overall surface finish and ensures proper water flow.
  1. Testing: Once the water circuit is manufactured, it undergoes various tests to ensure its quality and functionality. These tests may include pressure testing to check for leaks, flow testing to measure water velocity, or temperature testing to verify heat transfer capabilities.
  1. Installation: Finally, the water circuit is integrated into the tool or product where it will be used. This may involve connecting it to other components, such as pumps or cooling systems, and securing it in place.


Tool with Water Circuit Features

The manufacture of water circuits in toolmaking requires precision machining, proper sealing techniques, and thorough testing to ensure efficient and reliable cooling and heating capabilities.

The Importance of Water Fittings to Water Circuits

Water fittings are an essential component in manufacturing water circuits in toolmaking. They are used to connect different parts of the water circuit system, ensuring a proper flow of water for cooling or other hydraulic functions.

Here are some ways water fittings are used in toolmaking:

Connectivity: Water fittings act as connectors between different sections or components of the water circuit. They have threads or specific connections that are compatible with the pipes or hoses used in the system. These fittings provide a secure connection, enabling the smooth flow of water throughout the circuit.

Routing: Water fittings help in routing the water through various sections and channels of the tool. They allow for the precise positioning of hoses or pipes, ensuring that water reaches specific areas that require cooling or hydraulic pressure.

Regulation: Some water fittings come with built-in valves or regulators that help control the flow and pressure of water in the circuit. These valves can be manually adjustable or automated, allowing for precise control of cooling or hydraulic functions within the tool.

Adaptability: Water fittings come in various shapes, sizes, and configurations to accommodate different types of toolmaking applications. They can be customised to fit specific tool designs and provide the required water flow and connectivity.

Leak prevention: Properly installed water fittings help prevent leaks by creating tight seals between the water circuit components. This is critical to ensure the efficient and safe operation of the tool, as any leakage can influence cooling efficiency, hydraulic pressure, or pose safety risks.

The Complexities of Integrating Water Circuits into Tooling

Water circuits can be complex to make due to several reasons:

Precision machining: Water circuits often require precise machining to ensure proper flow and distribution of water. This may involve drilling, tapping, and milling complex shapes and channels in the tool or equipment.

Integration with the tool: Incorporating water circuits into a tool requires careful design and engineering. Water circuits need to be seamlessly integrated within the existing structure, without compromising the tool’s functionality or structural integrity.

Cooling considerations: Designing an efficient cooling system depends upon flow rate, heat dissipation, and maintaining optimum temperatures throughout the tool.

Maintenance and repair: Water circuits may require periodic maintenance and repair. Troubleshooting within the water circuit can be complex, especially if the tool is in use or tightly integrated. Ensuring accessibility and easy disassembly of the water circuit components for maintenance or replacement is essential.

Tool with Water Fittings
action image
We can put your plans into action today

Award-winning aluminium tooling, plastic injection moulding, CNC machining, and rapid prototyping. We specialise in fast turnarounds of high quality components.

Want to know more? Get a quote